The Russian league system is broken into 2 playable divisions in FM, the 16 team Russian Federation Premier Division (catchy name huh!) and the 22 team first division (pervyy division, no, not a ranking for the greatest pervs of all time!). It is currently the 6th highest ranked league in the UEFA coefficient, giving it 3 CL places and 3 EL places.
Russian 1st Division (Pervyy Division)
The 42 game season plays out between March and November, but still observes the transfer windows in Januray (pre-season one for Russia) and July (mid-season). You can name 7 subs per match, and unusually you can use 4 of them in a game. The squad can contain as many foreigners as you like, but only 3 can be on the pitch at one time. There is a small 2 week break at the start of October as well.
Russian Cup (Kubok Rossii)
Strangely this competition is played from June to May, meaning it straddles seasons. All rounds are straight knock-out competition. In the 5th and 6th rounds the lower team gets the home draw, from the 7th round right through to the Semi-Final the team that has played the fewest home games gets the home draw.
Russian Super Cup (Super Kubok)
Played before the start of the season between the Champions of the PL and the Cup winners.
Source: William McBeard